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Camera Settings, or Going Full Manual.
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  1. #1
    Devil's Advocate Moderator paultakeda's Avatar
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    Camera Settings, or Going Full Manual.

    Understanding the math in photography will make you a better photographer. This is a plain and simple fact. Being an excellent photographer, however, requires more than just knowing the math. That comes to some with talent, but certainly to all with practice.

    I am not a photographer. I haven't even owned an interchangeable lens SLR since graduate school. But, yes, I did take photography in high school and yes, I did use a manual focus 35mm SLR in graduate school for work in the field. And yes, I am as much an enthusiast about photography as I am about, oh, let's say... cars. Not an expert, an enthusiast. So I know enough to be dangerous, let's leave it at that.

    So what are those settings on the camera?

    Shutter speed: how long the shutter is open, exposing the film/sensor to light.

    ISO: This is film speed. Back when people used film (you know, the 20th century), ISO determined the light sensitivity of the negative. ISO 100 is less sensitive than ISO 200. This means that if you take a photograph using ISO 100 versus ISO 200, ISO 200 will take the same picture at twice the shutter speed, assuming all other settings are equal. For instance, if you take a picture of your dog and the camera tells you it is doing so at shutter speed 1/200 and ISO 100, you can get the exact same shot at shutter speed 1/400 and ISO 200. All ISO settings do in a digital camera is increase power to the sensor, thereby increasing sensitivity.

    Aperture, f-number: This is that funky F2.8 or f/2.8, etc. number. An aperture is the dictionary term, a hole. In this case, the aperture is how large a hole, and therefore how much light, is let through to the sensor. The f-number means something about the focal ratio, but let's ignore that and get to the nitty gritty: the higher the number the smaller the hole. That means f/2.8 is a bigger hole and lets through more light than f/11. What does this mean to the camera? Two important things: one, everything else being equal, a lower f-number means a faster shutter speed (more light means less time); and two, the lower the f-number the shallower your depth of field (this is the range of a photograph that is in focus).

    Those are the basics, really, and if you've used A or S on the dial of your camera you already know how aperture and shutter speed priorities affect your pictures.

    Now what's really interesting are the benefits of increasing the focal length (which you can do on a kit lens by zooming in) and how that affects aperture, shutter and film speed settings, all of which change the depth of field. Figuring this stuff out is what I would call the next level of photographic composition, the first being basic framing of a subject.

    This is where things get more technical and I'll defer to an article by Andrzej Wrotniak. Also, here is an article on digital camera sensor sizes, which includes a DOF calculator.

    Let me state right now that I will not discuss the pros and cons of standards like Nikon and Canon's APS-C or Olympus and Panasonic/Leica's Four Thirds. That's geek talk, stuff about electronics, pixel density, etc. Arguments about this are boring and completely neglect the important part: the photographer taking the photograph. There are certainly tradeoffs depending on which standard you choose, but here's the short answer: smaller sensor sizes have greater depth of field at an equivalent EFL and aperture. That means that when you are taking pictures at a party and you really don't want to care about composition as all you really want is everyone in focus and everyone having a good time, you're actually better off using a consumer pocket digital camera with a small sensor simply because with the greater DOF you're almost guaranteed not to have blurry pics (provided the autofocus system is working, so you still need a fairly decent consumer pocket digital camera).

    Reading those two links above, by the way, pretty much covers a lot of the math. White balance and exposure settings are correction factors (something you usually can fix later if you get it wrong). White balance is what the camera believes is white (those professionals walk around with that "white card"... I walk around with an old milky white Pringles can cap), so the color looks accurate (although you can mess with this to come up with some funky pictures; I favor putting things deep into the red). Exposure settings can be changed if you find that you've run out of acceptable ISO, aperture and/or shutter speed settings and the shot is still over or under exposed according to your camera's light meter -- you can artificially extend your range in either by using the +/- EV setting on your camera. This is more to fix a slight issue, and you really wouldn't be using this much if you still have the other settings available.

    I'm making this the thread about photography settings and discussion. Let's try and keep it clean of comparisons between actual cameras, though talking about sensor sizes and how they affect focal length and perceived noise isn't off-topic. I'm sure some of the more seasoned photographers can chime in and even correct some of the things I've written, as well.

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  3. #2
    Save the Boobies!!!!! Moderator Tom's Avatar
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    Re: Camera Settings, or Going Full Manual.

    Here's some info I posted in another thread, but I'll add it to this sticky:

    Exposure: The amount of light allowed through the lens, into the camera, and projected on the image capture media (digital sensor or film) to produce the desired image.

    * Aperture - How wide the lens is opened at the aperture blades when the shutter is released, from wide open to a tiny pinhole, measured in "f"/"Stops" in multiples of the square root of 2,
    [wide open] 1.0, 1.4, 2.0, 2.8, 4.0, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 23, 32 [closed down, pinhole].

    * Shutter Speed - The amount of time that the camera's shutter opens to "expose" the image capture media to the light/image projected in by the lens/camera, measured in fractions of a second, seconds, minutes, or hours (long exposure).

    * ISO - How "reactive" the image capture media is to light, measured in ISO (ASA) Numbers/Stops. The higher the ISO, the more reactive/responsive the image capture media is to light and the "faster" the image capture media responds to light (note grain/resolution effects, the higher the ISO and the faster the reaction/response of the image capture media, the more "grain", noise, and lost resolution the image will have, digital and film alike),
    [slow] 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200 [fast]. ISO and grain/nose - the lower the better in terms of image quality, 100 to 200 for outdoors, 400 indoors, 800 pretty high, 1600 really high, 3200 way fast.


    Exposure/Image "Quality":

    * Focus/Sharpness/Depth of Field - Adjustable

    * Color Cast and Temperature//White Balance - Adjustable via white balance or film selection according to the color cast of the environment, daylight (flash), incandescent/tungsten, fluorescent, etc.

    * Resolution/Grain - The finer and higher the resolution of the image capture media, and the finer/smaller the sensor pixels or film grain are, the larger the image can be enlarged and still maintain "photographic" quality, which is generally regarded as a image presented/printed at 200 dpi or greater, where the individual "pixels" or film grain will not be visible to the naked eye.

    * Dynamic Range/Contrast - How many "steps" from white to black, light to dark, and everything in between.


    Proper exposure is getting the "right" amount of light to the image capture media, by controlling the aperture, shutter speed, and ISO, there are an infinite number of proper/equivalent exposures, but each will give a different look and different optical/photographic effects to the image captured.


    Upon Release of the Shutter (Lens/SLR Diagram - Lens, Elements, Aperture Blades, Mirror, Prism/Viewfinder, Film/Sensor Plane):

    * Auto Focus (if applicable)
    * Auto Exposure/Metering (if applicable)
    * Mirror flips up (source of vibration/camera shake)
    * Lens stops down to appropriate aperture
    * Shutter opens for appropriate duration
    * Image exposed on film or exposed on digital sensor, then written into buffer and then to digital storage media
    * Lens aperture returns to wide open
    * Mirror flips back down
    * Film advances to next frame (if applicable) or buffer clears for next shot


    Setting up the Shot, Decisions/Considerations:

    * Lens Focal Length
    * Aperture/Depth of Field/Focus
    * Shutter Speed
    * ISO
    * Exposure/Metering
    * Exposure Mode
    * Metering Mode
    * Flash
    * Image File Type
    * Composition


    Lenses and Lens Specifications:

    * Typically stated as focal length for fixed focal length lenses, termed prime lenses, or the focal length range for variable focal length lenses, termed zoom lenses, followed by the maximum aperture the lens is capable of for primes, or the range of maximum apertures that correspond to the range of focal lengths for zooms.

    * 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6, 28-70mm f/2.8, 50mm f/1.8, 70-200 f/2.8, 85mm f/1.4

    * Focal Length - Distance in mm from the lens image crossover point to the resolved image, for a given image size, a shorter focal length yields a wider field of view and a longer focal length yields a narrower and more magnified field of view. (Diagram)

    * [Fisheye] Wide Angle, Normal, Telephoto [Portrait], Super Telephoto [Portrait]

    * For a 35mm film camera, a 50mm lens, or more broadly the focal length range from 45mm to 60mm, yields a "normal" field of view, more or less equivalent to the field of view we perceive in our vision.

    * For a 35mm film camera, the 45mm to 60mm focal length range is termed the Normal range.

    * For a 35mm film camera, a focal length longer than 60mm is a Telephoto or Super Telephoto.

    * For a 35mm film camera, a focal length shorter than 45mm is a Wide Angle.

    * For a 35mm film camera, the focal length range from 70mm to 135mm is considered the Portrait range, with 85mm, 105mm, 120mm, and 135mm being the "classic" portrait lenses/focal lengths.

    * Macro (Micro) Lens - A lens capable of focusing "close up" and/or magnifying small objects to produce a nearly life size or magnified image of small objects/subjects.

    * Relative Magnification - Assuming a fixed camera to subject distance and varied lens focal length, relative image magnification and subject image size varies in directly proportion to lens focal length. A subject shot at a 200mm focal length will appear twice as large as one shot at a 100mm focal length, four times a large as one shot at a 50mm focal length, and eight times as large as one shot at 25mm. (Diagram) Thus, a 28-70mm zoom lens might be termed a 2.5x zoom, a 24-120mm zoom might be termed a 5x zoom, and so on.

    * Other Features/Specifications - USM/AF-S Ultrasonic Focusing Motors, IS/VR Image Stabilization Vibration Reduction, L-Series/Professional, etc., EF-S/DX Digital SLR, learn what each lens code means.


    Focal Length Multiplier:

    * A 35mm film frame is 24mm tall by 36mm long (about 1 inch by 1.5 inches) for an aspect ratio of 3:2.

    * For 35mm film, 35mm refers to the width of the film beyond the 24mm height, 5.5mm top and bottom to have room for a border and the sprocket holes, for a total of 35mm film width.

    * Digital sensors in digital cameras are often smaller than a 35mm film frame, the degree to which corresponds directly to what is termed the Focal Length Factor or Focal Length Multiplier, typical values are 1.5, 1.6, 1.3, or 1.0 (full frame).

    * A digital camera with a focal length multiplier (FLM) of 1.6 has an effective digital sensor size that is 1.6 times smaller than a 35mm film frame, so 15mm tall by 22.5mm long.

    * The typically smaller size of the sensor on a digital camera compared to a full 35mm film frame means that lenses and focal lengths behave differently on a digital SLR (dSLR) than they would on a 35mm film SLR or a digital "full frame" SLR (one where the effective digital sensor size is the same size as a 35mm film frame 24mm by 36mm). (Diagram)

    * The behavior of a lens on a digital SLR with a FLM > 1.0 can be related to a 35mm film "equivalent" focal length via the FLM.

    * A 50mm lens on a dSLR with a FLM of 1.6 (digital sensor 1.6 times smaller than a 35mm film frame) behaves as a 80mm focal length lens would on a 35mm film or full frame dSLR.

    * A 50mm lens on a dSLR with a FLM of 1.6 will not behave as a normal lens, it will give a more telephoto field of view and behave as more of a portrait lens.

    * For a dSLR with a FLM of 1.6, a focal length of 30 to 40 mm will behave in the "normal" range, a 30mm focal length will behave about as a 50mm normal lens would on a 35mm film of full frame dSLR (30mm @ 1.6 FLM = 48mm 35mm equivalent).


    Selecting an Appropriate/Optimal Focal Length (35mm Equivalent):

    * Panorama/Landscape - Often Wide Angle to Normal, sometimes Telephoto or Super Telephoto, depending on the desired effect. Wide angle tends to accentuate the foreground, deemphasize the background, and exaggerate perspective and front to back distance. Telephoto on the contrary tends to flatten the image and deemphasize perspective and front to back distances due to the magnification effect.

    * All Around/Photojournalistic/Family/Around the House - Normal, also Wide Angle or Portrait or Telephoto.

    * Portraits - Telephoto (Portrait) 70mm and up. For a portrait style shot, where the face or faces fill a significant portion of the frame, shots are often taken fairly close up, within 5 or 6 ft, if not closer. Shorter/wider lenses are not flattering to the face when shooting close up and tend to make ears look small, noses look big, and faces appear distorted. Due to its magnification, a telephoto lens tends to flatten the image, which is flattering for ears and noses. The distance from ears to nose is around 3 inches, or 75mm, so you want a lens at least that long for portraiture of portrait (face) style shots to avoid exaggerated scale disparities between the nose, face, ears. Note that for portraits or portrait style shots, a wide aperture if often desirable, in order to attractively blur foreground and background elements, put the focus of the image squarely on the subject, and make the subject "pop" out of the image. See aperture and depth of field below.

    * Zoom Lenses - A zoom lens offers a variety of focal lengths but the zoom is generally not to be used as a composition tool. Select the appropriate focal length for the shot and then move forward or backward to compose. It is generally not desirable to zoom in and out to compose from a fixed position, unless you have no other choice and are not able to move around freely. Better photographers will generally move around to compose the shot to an appropriate focal length, zooming in and out to compose a shot is something better left to amateurs, video camera excepted.


    Aperture:

    * How wide the lenses aperture blades remain open when the shutter is released.
    * f/stop is the ratio of lens focal length to the effective aperture open diameter.
    * Each f/stop step increment represents a doubling or halving of the lens aperture open area and thus the amount of light admitted into the lens
    [wide open] 1.0, 1.4, 2.0, 2.8, 4.0, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 23, 32 [closed down, pinhole].
    * For a 50mm lens:
    Focal Length (mm), f/stop, Open Diameter (mm), Open Area (mm^2), Open Area Ratio
    50, 1.0, 50.00, 1963.50, 1024
    50, 1.4, 35.36, 981.75, 512
    50, 2.0, 25.00, 490.87, 256
    50, 2.8, 17.68, 245.44, 128
    50, 4.0, 12.50, 122.72, 64
    50, 5.6, 8.84, 61.36, 32
    50, 8.0, 6.25, 30.68, 16
    50, 11, 4.42, 15.34, 8
    50, 16, 3.13, 7.67, 4
    50, 23, 2.21, 3.83, 2
    50, 32, 1.56, 1.92, 1

  4. #3
    Save the Boobies!!!!! Moderator Tom's Avatar
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    Re: Camera Settings, or Going Full Manual.

    Aperture and Depth of Field (DOF):

    * Depth of field is the range of distances in front of and behind the subject that remain reasonably in focus along with the subject.

    * DOF field varies with aperture, from shallow at wide aperture (foreground and background blurred), to infinite at small aperture (Pinhole Camera Effect).

    * Small Apertures and Pinhole Camera Effect - Everything remains in focus with a small aperture/pinhole camera since all the light that reaches the image capture media must pass directly through a single, common, point, the "pinhole."

    * At wide apertures, only the subject will be in focus, the foreground and background will be blurred. This effect is highly desirable for portraits. For portraits, always make sure that the eyes are in focus for a proper looking photo, if the eyes are in focus the shot will look right, even if the DOF is so shallow that other areas of the subject (nose or ears for example) are not entirely in focus. Shots where the eyes are not in focus just look like blurry photos.

    * The quality or "softness" of the blur of out of focus elements in the foreground and background is termed "bokeh." Soft bokeh is prized and comes from multiple rounded edge aperture blades that produce a nice smooth round aperture opening, and from good lens optics overall.

    * Lenses for portrait use must thus be of appropriate focal length, offer wide apertures, and ideally high quality bokeh.

    * "Rules" - f/8 and "be there", Sunny 16, etc.

    * Don't be afraid to use wide or narrow apertures to produced desired DOF effects.

    * Note that focusing the lens to "infinity" to concentrate/compose on more distant objects tends to provide deeper DOF and render all reasonably distant objects in focus, all else equal, while focusing closer provides shallower/narrower DOF, all else equal. DOF generally increases/deepens proportional to the distance to the subject focused upon.


    DOF Preview:

    * The view through the viewfinder/lens is normally at the maximum aperture in order to provide as bright an image as possible in the viewfinder. The camera normally only actually closes/stops the lens aperture down to the appropriate/selected aperture for a photo for the short period when the picture is actually taken and the shutter opens. Thus the view through the viewfinder will normally be at the most shallow DOF possible corresponding to the maximum aperture of the lens, and may not be representative of the aperture/DOF that would result when a picture is actually taken and the shutter opens.

    * The DOF Preview feature/button can be used to temporarily close/stop the lens down to the selected aperture without actually opening the shutter or taking a picture, so that the DOF that results from the selected aperture can be viewed/"previewed" in the viewfinder. Note that this may result in a darker image in the viewfinder, give your eyes a few minutes to adjust to the darker view before attempting to evaluate DOF effects through the viewfinder using DOF preview.


    Shutter Speed and Motion:

    * Shutter Speed - The length of time the shutter opens.
    * High/fast/short shutter speeds "freeze" motion with no motion blur, and no blur from camera shake/movement.
    * Low/slow/long shutter speeds blur motion, but increase susceptibility to blur in the image as a result of camera shake/movement.
    * Low/slow/long shutter speeds allow for proper exposures in low light and/or nighttime effects, start trails, light trails, motion trails.
    * Lenses - "Fast" glass refers to lenses with wide aperture capability (generally f/2.8 and lower) that can open wide to maintain high/reasonable shutter speeds even in lower light.
    * In order to limit blur from camera shake for handheld shots, shutter speeds should generally be at least the reciprocal of the lens focal length or faster (or alternately at least the reciprocal of the multiple of the lens focal length and the FLM, or faster), though this rule can be pushed a great deal depending photographer stability and shake. For example, when shooting with a 50mm focal length, shutter speeds should be at least 1/50th of a second according to the rule, though it might often be pushed as low as 1/30th, 1/25th or even lower depending on conditions.


    Metering and Exposure:

    * Exposure is measured in "stops"/exposure values (EVs). Each stop/EV increment represents a doubling of the amount of light needed for proper exposure.
    * Types of Metering: Matrix Metering, Center Weighted Metering, Spot Metering (Reflected vs. Incidence).
    * 18% Gray vs. RGB metering - Most meters are calibrated to render images to 18% gray on average, and only really "see"/meter in black and white. RGB meters actually "see" in color for truer metering, whiter whites, and blacker blacks.
    * Under Exposure - Overly Dark (Gray Snow)
    * Over Exposure - Bights Blown Out
    * Contrast - Proper image contrast gives a good, representative, balanced, but full range of "color" in the image, from light to dark, and white to black. Lights should be light, darks should be dark, whites white, and blacks black. For dSLRs or using Photoshop or similar, a review of the image histogram is a good way to judge image contrast and color balance.
    * Meter Reading (Diagram)


    Equivalent Exposures and Exposure Adjustments:

    * The following are all equivalent exposures: f/4.0, 1/100th, ISO200; f/2.8 1/200th, ISO200; f/4.0 1/200th, ISO400; f/2.8, 1/100th, ISO100.
    * For a given shot, if f/4.0, 1/200th, ISO200 were a proper exposure, the following would be one stop overexposed (twice the amount of light needed for proper exposure, +1.0 EV): f/2.8, 1/200th, ISO200; f/4.0, 1/100th, ISO200; f/4.0, 1/200th, ISO400.
    * For a given shot, if f/4.0 1/200th, ISO200 were a proper exposure, the following would be one stop underexposed (half the amount of light needed for proper exposure, -1.0 EV): f/5.6, 1/200th, ISO200; f/4.0, 1/400th, ISO200; f/4.0, 1/200th, ISO100.


    Exposure Modes:

    * Program - Fully Automatic Exposure, camera automatically selects a combination of aperture and shutter speed in order to provide a proper metered exposure (ISO preset).
    * Aperture Priority - Automatic Exposure, photographer selects/dictates the aperture for DOF control, camera automatically selects the proper shutter speed in order to provide a proper metered exposure (ISO preset).
    * Shutter Priority - Automatic Exposure, photographer selects/dictates the shutter speed for motion control, camera automatically selects the proper aperture in order to provide a proper metered exposure (ISO preset).
    * Manual - Manual Exposure, photographer selects/dictates aperture and shutter speed for desired exposure according to camera meter (ISO preset).
    * Program Shift - Fully Automatic Exposure, camera automatically selects/steps though combinations of aperture and shutter speed in order to provide a proper metered exposure (ISO preset).


    Exposure Bracketing and Compensation:

    * Automatic Exposure Compensation refers to programming the camera to overexpose or underexpose every shot by a certain number of stops/EVs above or below "normal" exposure.
    * Automatic Exposure Bracketing refers to programming the camera to take multiple shots each time the shutter is released, one shot at "normal/compensated" exposure, and one or more shots a specified number of stops/EVs above (more overexposed) and/or below (more underexposed) the "normal/compensated" exposure.


    Proper Hand Holding and Breathing:

    * Right hand around grip, index finger on shutter release and front controls, thumb for rear controls.
    * Left hand under camera body and/or lens, positioned to support camera body and lens, and to manipulate lens rings - focus, zoom, aperture (if applicable).
    * Breathe in, breathe out, release shutter in moment of calm after breath is released.


    Composition:

    * Portrait and Landscape - Don't be afraid to use both vertical and horizontal compositions.

    * Rule of Thirds - Arranging the composition of a photo with the subject in the center of the frame is often not as interesting/pleasing to the eye as locating the subject off center. Often the most desirable/pleasing composition will be with the subject and/or significant other image features arranged/centered along the "third" divisions of the frame, horizontally, vertically, or both.

    * Balance - A well balanced shot will often be pleasing if multiple subjects and image focal points are present, in accordance with the rule of thirds as desired. For a single subject or an image with a primary subject and everything else secondary, an offset presentation per the rule of thirds may be desirable, though symmetry and balance can also be important/desirable at times.

    * Flow - Think about how they eye will be drawn through each image, how the image flows, you want the eye to be drawn to the primary subject/subjects, not away from it.

    * Focus Modes and Focus Lock - Think about how focusing, focus modes, DOF, etc. will affect the shot, or affect getting the shot. Don't be afraid to focus/focus lock, recompose, and shoot. On the other hand, you can also often just get/take the shot wide and then digitally edit/crop/adjust composition later (Photoshop)


    Digital Camera File/Storage Types (JPEG, TIFF, RAW):

    * Always shoot full resolution and RAW, and save/backup original files.
    * Retain original files unchanged.
    * Copy, rotate, edit and resize images as needed (Photoshop).
    * RAW - Full resolution image, direct digital sensor data, allows some "direct" exposure/color caste adjustments, loss less picture file format.
    * TIFF - Full or reduced resolution image, loss less picture file format.
    * JPEG - Full or reduced resolution image, compressed/"lossy" picture file format, beware recompression with each save.
    * Note, that once resolution is lost, either through image compression or image resizing, it can never be restored short of going back to the original image.


    Great Shots, Lenses, and Equipment:

    * The most important aspect of a picture is the subject.
    * The photographer is thus the most significant factor in getting good shots - composition, lighting, effects, focus, DOF, motion, exposure.
    * Equipment is secondary to the photographer in getting good shots, a good photographer will get good shots regardless of subjects and equipment, and make the most of whatever equipment is at hand, that said, good equipment and good subjects don't hurt.
    * As equipment goes, lenses are most important, "fast" glass and quality optics are highly prized and often tend towards the expensive.
    * Lighting/flash is also very important.
    * The camera body, while obviously critical, is least important.
    * A good photographer knows his photographic tools, their features and capabilities, and associated tradeoffs. Read your camera and other manuals to be sure you have a reasonably solid understanding of how everything works and what each control/adjustment does and can do in practice. It's a good idea to read manuals multiple times over a period of time to help controls and concepts really sink in and to broaden one's understanding of one's photographic tools.

  5. #4
    Save the Boobies!!!!! Moderator Tom's Avatar
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    Re: Camera Settings, or Going Full Manual.

    Filters:

    * UV/Haze - Protection for the front lens element, UV elimination.
    * Polarizer - Glare elimination, vivid sky effects (Circular polarizer necessary for auto focus camera as opposed to old style linear polarizers).


    Flash/Lighting:

    * A good professional quality hot shoe mounted flash with bounce and diffusion capability is almost a must for indoor shooting or fill flash.
    * Flash light provides a daylight color balance even under adverse lighting conditions or ambient light color casts.
    * Bounce flash off neutral colored ceilings or surfaces to avoid harsh shadows (often in combination with diffusion).
    * Use a flash diffuser to avoid harsh shadows (often in combination with bounce flash).
    * On camera flash (if so equipped) often isn't powerful enough, generally doesn't allow for good diffusion or bounced flash, and often doesn't cut it except possibly for fill flash (i.e. additional direct lighting of the subject). Additionally, in order to provide the most pleasing lighting effects when using a flash, it is often desirable to have the light source removed a certain distance from the lens or even completely remote from the camera/lens.
    * Flash Output - The higher the flash guide number, the higher the peak light output of the flash.

    Other:

    * Film/Digital Media
    * Batteries
    * Lens Cloths
    * Digital Sensor Cleaning Materials
    * Compressed/Canned Air
    * Rubber Viewfinder Eyecup
    * Tripod/Monopod
    * Heads, Ballheads, and Quick Release Plates
    * Remote Shutter Release
    * Camera Bags - Depending on equipment, a variety can be nice, from smaller bags to carry just the essentials, to larger bags for "everything".
    * Updated/Enhanced Firmware (Hacks)
    * Incidence Light Meter


    Prints/Enlargements:

    * Need 200 dpi or greater for "photographic quality."
    * 6.3 MP = 6,300,000 pixels = 3,072 pixels x 2,048 pixels = 15.4 inch x 10.2 inch maximum photographic quality print @ 200 dpi
    * 8.2 MP = 8,200,000 pixels = 3,504 pixels x 2,336 pixels = 17.5 inch x 11.7 inch maximum photographic quality print @ 200 dpi
    * 35mm film = 36mm x 24mm = 1.42 inches x 0.94 inches = 21.4 MP @ 4000 dpi scan = 5,669 pixels x 3,779 pixels = 28.3 inch x 18.9 inch maximum photographic quality print @ 200 dpi
    * 35mm film = 36mm x 24mm = 1.42 inches x 0.94 inches = 39.1 MP @ 5400 dpi scan = 7,653 pixels x 5,102 pixels = 38.3 inch x 25.5 inch maximum photographic quality print @ 200 dpi
    * Use interpolation or higher MP/scan resolution for larger prints.
    * Typical Print Sizes: 3 inch x 5 inch (cropped), 4 inch x 6 inch (preserves full frame 3:2 aspect ratio), 8 inch x 10 inch (cropped).
    * Internet/Computer Use: 300x200, 600x400, etc. relative to typical screen resolutions 800x600, 1280x1024, etc.


    Common Abbreviations:

    * TTL - Through the lens, as in TTL Metering, TTL Viewfinder (vs. Rangefinder), TTL Flash Metering
    * SLR - Single lens reflex
    * EV - Exposure Value
    * CCD - A type of digital image sensor
    * CMOS - A type of digital image sensor


    http://photonotes.org/articles/beginner-faq/
    www.photo.net
    www.kodak.com
    http://www.dofmaster.com/dofjs.html

    www.dpreview.com
    www.robgalbraith.com

    http://www.usa.canon.com/consumer/co...categoryid=101
    www.nikonusa.com

    www.bhphoto.com

  6. #5
    Save the Boobies!!!!! Moderator Tom's Avatar
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    Re: Camera Settings, or Going Full Manual.

    Alfred Eisenstaedt said “f/8 and be there”, meaning selecting the aperture with the best balance of speed and depth of field, together with being in the right place at the right time.




    When caught without a meter, one can use the "Sunny 16 Rule" as a guide for exposure. There are two steps to the rule, as outlined below:


    STEP 1: Set your shutter speed equal to your film speed.

    (i.e., Shutter = Film Speed)

    Examples: 1/60 for Velvia rated at ISO 50; 1/125 for TMax rated at ISO 100. Note that in most cases, the shutter speed will NOT EXACTLY EQUAL film speed, but will be set as close as possible to the film speed. It's simply easier to remember the rule as "Shutter = Film Speed."

    STEP 2: Set your aperture equal to f/16 for sunny sky.

    What if it's not sunny?
    If slightly overcast, open one stop to f/11. If overcast, open two stops to f/8. If deeply overcast, open three stops to f/5.6.

    How do I distinguish between slightly overcast, overcast and heavy overcast?

    Examine the shadow detail. If shadows are distinct but soft around the edges, then it's slightly overcast. If shadows are not distinct, but still visible - very soft - then it's overcast. If there are no shadows at all, then it's heavy overcast.

  7. #6
    SoCalEuro Member GTi_01's Avatar
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    Re: Camera Settings, or Going Full Manual.

    almost anything you can think of can be found on this site, so take advantage of these helpful tips http://digital-photography-school.co...for-beginners/

    Digital Photography Tips for Beginners

    A large proportion of the readers of Digital Photography School classify themselves as beginners - so we thought it might be helpful to have a page set up that collates some of our Digital Photography Tips for Beginners.
    Below is just a selection of some of our digital photography tips and tutorials aimed more at the beginner photographer. We’re always writing more beginner tips - so subscribe to DPS today to get all of our updates.
    The Basics of Exposure
    Learning to Use Digital Camera Settings and Features
    Handling and Caring for a Digital Camera
    Other Beginner Photography Tutorials and Tips

    Common Digital Photography Problems and Questions Answered
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